(20) The phrase having ‘brother’, aha in the BT, features simultaneously become enhanced, even though this mode is additionally used in Turoyo. Hertevin features each other ?aha and you may ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).
At exactly the same time, outside NENA, i’ve almost every other terms and conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)
(21) One as an alternative mysterious product that’s attested in most NENA dialects except Sanandaj Christian (hence probably only a go pit regarding the facts) is aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues this phrase comes throughout the root ql ‘to feel crooked’. All the languages make use of the form aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you will Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.
(22) Other phrase discussed from the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty two, 134) was baxta ‘woman’, with supplanted the new Syriac atta throughout NENA, but not for the Turoyo or Mandaic. That it keyword generally seems to derive from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s interesting to see one to an unequal plural survives within the several languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and Halabja inse.
(23) Surprise development mentioned of the Noldeke (1868, 59) was rxata, add up to Syriac rhat. The change regarding h to help you x contained in this one word are used in the NENA dialects where the verb is actually attested. Examples: Sanandaj Christian raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).
(24) Another unanticipated development is the NENA verb ‘fear’, which will take the fresh versions zda?an effective, zdaya, and you may zdala regarding the various languages. Macuch and you can Panoussi (1974, 50) offer a potential derivation regarding the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Versions on infixed d are found in most the newest NENA languages in which the resources is attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)
Never assume all of your distinguishing popular features of NENA can be found either in tinder hledat Turoyo or Mandaic
I do believe your more than will make it obvious the NENA dialects express many distinctive characteristics that are discovered neither in the previous attested different Aramaic nor throughout the most other life style dialects. These characteristics diversity across the domains regarding phonology, morphology, additionally the lexicon.
Especially, every languages from NENA concur in criteria 2, nine, 14, 15, sixteen, 21, and you will twenty-two. The dialects in which you will find guidance in addition to acknowledge criteria 20, 23, and you will twenty four.
Just about Halabja consent in criteria 8 and you can 11. Requirement six is situated in most of the dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and Sanandaj Christian.
Despite their inner divisions, this new NENA dialects form a stunningly defined classification, divided certainly off one another Turoyo and Mandaic. The positioning of those dialects beyond your NENA pale may be out of question.
The levels that enjoys was common across NENA is very unbelievable when we take into account the astounding differences between the various dialects. The dictate away from other dialects towards NENA has been each other strong and you will large, and also the standard of common intelligibility ranging from dialects can be extremely quick. Many common innovations argue strongly having a familiar source of the brand new NENA languages, in a choice of just one dialect or perhaps in a group of closely associated dialects. At the same time, we can detect several important bundles out of isoglosses and that portray the new limits regarding dialect groups.
a) Brand new dialect of Halabja doesn’t share certain essential innovations which are observed through all remaining portion of the languages. It will not setting a great CCiC-le preterite away from intransitive verbs (8), it has got zero b(it)- upcoming marker (10), and also no 3rd people singular copula having step one (11). This is certainly the absolute most important office anywhere between languages from NENA. It indicates that the remaining languages function a group through which innovations give while Halabja remained unaffected by her or him.